Nickel Alloys .Net

Copper Alloys - Copper/Nickel Alloys


Chemical Formula

Cu/Ni Alloys

Topics Covered

  • Background
  • Key Properties
  • Applications
  • Sea Water Condensor Systems And Desalination Plants
  • Automotive Applications
  • Marine Applications
  • Coins
  • Resistance Wire
  • Thermocouples
  • Other Applications

Background

Sometimes called cupro-nickels, there exists a range of different copper nickel alloys that possess different properties and hence are suited to a range of different applications. Some of the better known copper nickel alloys include:

  • Copper with 10% nickel
  • Copper with 30% nickel
  • Copper with 25% nickel with 0.05-0.4% manganese
  • Copper with 45% nickel (also known as constantan)

All copper nickel alloys consist of only one phase as the copper nickel binary system exhibits complete solid solubility.

Key Properties

Properties of copper nickel alloys vary with composition, however, some properties of copper nickel alloys are outlined below.

Copper-Nickel alloy Copper 90/10 and Copper 70/30

  • Outstanding resistance to corrosion, particularly sea water
  • 70/30 is stronger and has superior resistance to impingement corrosion
  • Good resistance to biofouling, with the 90/10 alloy being slightly superior compared to the 70/30 alloy

Copper rich alloys are:

  • Ductile
  • Can be hardened only by cold working
  • Good corrosion resistance
  • Good strength
  • Low temperature co-efficient of electrical resistance

The nickel content in these copper nickel alloys also enables them to retain their strength at elevated temperatures compared to copper alloys without nickel.

Applications of Copper Nickel alloys

Copper Nickel alloys

Sea Water Condensor Systems And Desalination Plants

Due to the good resistance to sea water corrosion, the copper nickel alloy Copper 90/10 and copper nickel alloy Copper 70/30 are employed for sea water condenser systems and in desalination plants, as well as pipe work in chemical plants.

Automotive Applications

Due to the fact that the copper nickel alloy Copper 90/10 requires no surface protection and hence gives extra safety, this copper nickel alloy is being increasingly employed for brake and hydraulic suspension systems and cooling systems in cars and commercial vehicles.

Marine Applications

The good resistance to biofouling and sea water corrosion resistance of the copper nickel alloys, Copper 90/10 and Copper 70/30 alloys have lead to its use in applications such as cladding for ships' hulls, legs of oil rig platforms and sea water intake screens.

Coins

The copper nickel alloys composed of copper with 25% nickel with 0.05-0.4% manganese is commonly used for the manufacture of coins, medals and other semi valuable applications.

Resistance Wire

Resistance Wire

Due to the very low temperature co-efficient of electrical resistivity, the copper nickel alloys composed of copper with 45% nickel alloy is used for resistance wire in high precision resistors. This property of copper nickel alloys allows the resistor to operate at almost exactly the same resistance regardless of temperature.

Thermocouples

Thermocouples

The copper nickel alloys composed of copper-45% nickel alloy is also used for thermocouples as it develops a high and uniform EMF when coupled with other metals such as copper and iron.

Other Applications

Copper nickel alloys are also used in cooling circuits, ammunition, sea water corrosion-resistant assemblies, condenser tubes.

Property Table of Copper Nickel Alloys

Material: Copper Alloys - Copper Nickel Alloys

PropertyMinimum Value (S.I.)Maximum Value (S.I.)Units (S.I.)Minimum Value (Imp.)Maximum Value (Imp.)Units (Imp.)
Atomic Volume (average)0.00710.0073m3/kmol433.268445.473in3/kmol
Density8.58.95Mg/m3530.638558.731lb/ft3
Energy Content140180MJ/kg15167.419501kcal/lb
Bulk Modulus130170GPa18.854924.6564106 psi
Compressive Strength85550MPa12.328279.7708ksi
Ductility0.030.44 0.030.44 
Elastic Limit85550MPa12.328279.7708ksi
Endurance Limit138240MPa20.015234.809ksi
Fracture Toughness2679MPa.m1/223.661271.8937ksi.in1/2
Hardness5801650MPa84.1219239.312ksi
Loss Coefficient1.5e-0050.00056 1.5e-0050.00056 
Modulus of Rupture85550MPa12.328279.7708ksi
Poisson's Ratio0.340.35 0.340.35 
Shear Modulus4558GPa6.52678.41219106 psi
Tensile Strength267624MPa38.725190.5036ksi
Young's Modulus120156GPa17.404522.6259106 psi
Glass Temperature  K  °F
Latent Heat of Fusion220240kJ/kg94.5825103.181BTU/lb
Maximum Service Temperature425480K305.33404.33°F
Melting Point13841508K2031.532254.73°F
Minimum Service Temperature00K-459.67-459.67°F
Specific Heat384386J/kg.K0.2971620.298709BTU/lb.F
Thermal Conductivity1966W/m.K35.5686123.554BTU.ft/h.ft2.F
Thermal Expansion161710-6/K28.830.610-6/°F
Breakdown Potential  MV/m  V/mil
Dielectric Constant      
Resistivity11.736.310-8 ohm.m11.736.310-8 ohm.m


 

Environmental Properties
Resistance Factors
1=Poor 5=Excellent
Flammability5
Fresh Water5
Organic Solvents5
Oxidation at 500C3
Sea Water5
Strong Acid2
Strong Alkalis5
UV5
Wear5
Weak Acid4
Weak Alkalis5
Primary author: Dr. Agnes Sagal | Source: Materials Information Service, "Using copper and copper alloys" edited by Justin Furness.
For more information on this source please visit The Institute of Materials
Also known as cupro-nickels, they have compositions from 10% nickel to 45% nickel. Due to the large range of alloys, they display a range of different properties and applications. The major alloy types and typical applications such as condensors, automotive, marine, etc.

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